Angola /ænˈɡoʊlə/, officially the Republic of Angola (Portuguese: República de Angola pronounced: [ʁɛˈpublikɐ dɨ ɐ̃ˈɡɔlɐ]; Kikongo, Kimbundu, Umbundu: Repubilika ya Ngola), is a country in Southern Africa bordered by Namibia on the south, the Democratic Republic of the Congo on the north, and Zambia on the east; its west coast is on the Atlantic Ocean and Luanda is its capital city. The exclave province of Cabinda has borders with the Republic of the Congo and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The Portuguese were present in some – mostly coastal – points of the territory of what is now Angola, from the 16th to the 19th century, interacting in diverse ways with the peoples who lived there. In the 19th century, they slowly and hesitantly began to establish themselves in the interior. Angola as a Portuguese colony encompassing the present territory was not established before the end of the 19th century, and "effective occupation", as required by the Berlin Conference (1884) was achieved only by the 1920s after the Mbunda resistance and abduction of their King, Mwene Mbandu I Lyondthzi Kapova. Independence was achieved in 1975, after a protracted liberation war. After independence, Angola was the scene of an intense civil war from 1975 to 2002. Despite the civil war, areas such as Baixa de Cassanje continue a lineage of kings which have included the former King Kambamba Kulaxingo and current King Dianhenga Aspirante Mjinji Kulaxingo. The country has vast mineral and petroleum reserves, and its economy has on average grown at a double-digit pace since the 1990s, especially since the end of the civil war. In spite of this, standards of living remain low for the majority of the population, and life expectancy and infant mortality rates in Angola are among the worst in the world. Angola is considered to be economically disparate, with the majority of the nation's wealth concentrated in a disproportionately small sector of the population. Angola is a member state of the African Union, the Community of Portuguese Language Countries, the Latin Union and the Southern African Development Community. Geography Coatinha beach in Benguela, Angola Miradouro da Lua, which can be translated as Watchpoint of the Moon, situated at the coast 40 kilometers south of Luanda, Angola Topographic map of Angola. At 481,321 square miles (1,246,620 km2), Angola is the world's twenty-third largest country. It is comparable in size to Mali, or twice the size of France or Texas. It lies mostly between latitudes 4° and 18°S, and longitudes 12° and 24°E. Angola is bordered by Namibia to the south, Zambia to the east, the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the north-east, and the South Atlantic Ocean to the west. The coastal exclave of Cabinda in the north, borders the Republic of the Congo to the north, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the south. Angola's capital, Luanda, lies on the Atlantic coast in the northwest of the country. Climate Promenade on Luanda Bay Angola has three seasons, a dry season which lasts from May to October, a transitional season with some rain from November to January and a hot rainy season from February to April. April is the wettest month. Angola's average temperature on the coast is 60 °F (16 °C) in the winter and 70 °F (21 °C) in the summer, while the interior is generally hotter and dryer.